Sunday, 27 January 2013

Production of Brown Ink Out of Gmelina arborea (Gamhar) Fruit



ABSTRACT:

The world today is suffering for an economic crisis; many people seem to realize the importance of each item that needs to be bought. Ink is an ordinary item but prevalent in everyday use. Ball pens, pentel pens, markers and everything that provides ink for its functions are expensive that not all people can afford. That’s why the researcher investigated a project that can help lessen the economic crisis for the production of ink. 


INTRODUCTION:

Offices, workstations and even academic institutions have been using ink especially for their papers works and some other related activities. However, with the advent of highly commercialized items and supplies, people have difficulty in purchasing some basic things that are necessary to their works. Production of ink out of Gmelina arboera fruit will somehow stand as a remedy to this problem.
Gmelina arborea is a fast growing tree, which though grows on different localities and prefers moist fertile valleys with 750-4500 mm rainfall. It does not thrive on ill drained soils and remains stunted on dry, sandy or poor soils; drought also reduces it to a shrubby form. The fruit of this tree is said to be acrid, sour, bitter, sweet, cooling, diuretic tonic, aphrodisiac, alternative astringent to the bowels, promote growth of hairs, useful in ‘vata’, thirst, anaemia, leprosy, ulcers and vaginal discharge.
This particular tree occurs naturally in Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and in southern provinces of China and Philippines, but planted extensively in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Malaysia and on experimental basis in other countries as well. It is also planted in gardens and avenues.
Gmelina arborea timber is reasonably strong for its weight. It is used in constructions, furniture, carriages, sports, musical instruments and artificial limbs. Once seasoned, it is a very steady timber and moderately resistant to decay and ranges from very resistant to moderately resistant to termites.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

The main rationale of this study is to produce an ink out of Gmelina arborea fruit.

- What is Gmelina arborea?
- What are the economic advantages in producing such ink?
- How does it differ from other commercial inks?
- Is it economically feasible?
- Is it effective to use?

HYPOTHESIS:

The researchers have anticipated the availability of the needed materials in this study, below are the hypothetical statements set by the researchers.

- The ink will be usable.
- This study will show proper utilization of natural resources.
- The product will take an economic advantage compared to the commercialized ones.
- The study will show how to use waste materials especially the Gmelina fruit itself.
- People can easily acquire to use the ink.
- Because of its affordability people can easily purchase the ink.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

Gmelina fruit can be found anywhere and some people perceive that this particular fruit has of no value. In general, the significance of this study will show how this natural resource can be used to create something that can be of big help to some other people especially office workers, business people and mostly to the students . This ink can be used for paper works, office works, and can also be used as a substitute or alternative to the commercial inks.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS:

The main product of this study is “ink”, since the juice of Gmelina fruit is brown; therefore the color of the ink is brown. No other trees were used, only Gmelina arborea.
This study is limited only for brown ink production.


DEFINITION OF TERMS:

Gmelina arborea - is a fast growing tree, which though grows on different localities and prefers moist fertile valleys with 750-4500 mm rainfall. It does not thrive on ill drained soils and remains stunted on dry, sandy or poor soils; drought also reduces it to a shrubby form.

Ink- is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. Ink is used for drawing or writing with a pen or brush. Thicker inks, in paste form, are used extensively in letterpress and lithographic printing
Commercialize- manage or exploit in a way designed to make a profit.

Natural resources - are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. A natural resource's value rests in the amount of the material available and the demand for the certain material.

Fruit juice- is a liquid naturally contained in vegetable or fruit tissue. Juice may be supplied in concentrate form, requiring the user to add water to reconstitute the liquid back to its 'original state' (Generally, concentrates have a noticeably different taste than their comparable "fresh-squeezed" versions)

MATERIALS:

1. Gmelina Arborea Fruit
2. Coconut Vinegar
3. Pot
4. Marker (empty)

Procedure:

1. Gather all the materials needed.
2. Wash the Gmelina arborea fruit and the pot.
3. Squeeze the Gmelina fruit and get the extract.
4. Heat the pot using a stove or electric stove then put the extract of Gmelina fruit.
5. Mix the vinegar into the extract of Gmelina fruit inside the heated pot.
6. Let it cool and put it in an empty marker bottle.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE:

Gmelina arborea is a fast growing tree, which through grows on different localities and prefers moist fertile valleys with 750-4500 mm rainfall. It does not thrive on ill drained soils and remains stunted on dry, sandy or poor soils; drought also reduces it to a shubby form. It is a trent to see the Gmelina arborea tree standing straight with clear bole having branches on top and thick foliage forming a conical crown on the top of this tall stem. Bark light grey coloured exfoliating in light coloured patches when old, blaze, thick a chlorophyll layer just under the outer back, pale yellow white inside.
Vinegar is a sour tasting liquid containing acetic acid, obtained by fermenting dilute alcoholic liquids, typically wine, cider or beer and used as a condiment or for pickling. Ink is a coloured fluid used for writing, drawing or printing. 

METHODOLOGY:

Basically this research tackles about the Production of Brown Ink out of Gmelina Arborea Fruit; enable to come up with an accumulated result, the correspondents of this study conducted some experiments and prepared all the necessary equipment, tools and materials.
This research is applied in its method. Since the number one raw material of the study is already been used by people, the researchers also underwent some series of test in order to get the best result. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The result of the study which was based upon the research may iclude the economics progress and sustainability of ink production.
The production of ink varies directly to the daily neeeds of the people, especially those who are in the following working areas like offices, workstations, academic institutions and in some related activities. 

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

Itherefore conclude that the Gmelina fruit waste material has a great impact into the progression of our society. By this research study, people can easily acquire to use the ink out of Gmelina arborea fruit, which is affordability and which people can easily purchase.


BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. http://www.wikipedia.com
2. http://www.yahoo.com
3. http://www.google.com
4. http://www.encarta.com

Source: arapascal08

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