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Sunday, 14 August 2016

Study About Synthesis Of Liquid Crystals From Coconut Oil Fatty Acid

Liquid crystals are fluids that are between the solid and conventional liquid phases. Liquid crystals are in widespread use, especially in optical technologies. They are synthesized by combining fatty acids with cholesterol: This study aims to utilize coconut oil as an alternative source of fatty acids for synthesizing liquid crystals since coconut is cheap and abundant in the Philippines. Coconut oil is eighty-five percent fatty acids. This study used commercial coconut oil. Sulfuric acid was used to liberate the fatty acids. When the fatty acid layer was collected, it was mixed with the catalysts DCC (C71-112N2,N, N-dicyc/ohexylacarbodiamide) and DMAP (C71-110N2, 4-dimenopyrimidine) in 1:1 ratio. This was then mixed with commercial cholesterol and stirred until precipitates formed. The precipitates were filtered and the filtrate was collected. The organic layer was separated from the filtrate. The liquid crystal component was determined and isolated through column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. Infrared (IR) spectrography confirmed the presence of cholesterol ester. Two melting points, 80°C and 110°C, further showed that the product had liquid crystalline properties. The success of this project will provide a cheaper alternative to costly commercial liquid crystal and yet another use for coconut oil.


Liquid crystals are one of the foundations of a growing electronic world. They have been used in medicine, chemistry, thermometry, entertainment, and even cancer research. It is unfortunate, then, that only few in our country have concentrated on this newly developed field. This study stems from several previous researches on liquid crystals done the Philippine Science High School. Here, fatty acids from coconut oil were combined with cholesterol to form liquid crystal, Coconut oil was chosen as an alternative because it is cheap and abundant in the Philippines. It is preferable over the commercially available fatty acids which are very expensive. Coconut oil is eighty-five percent fatty acids. Should the research be successful, an alternative source of liquid crystals and another use for the ever versatile coconut shall have been discovered.


One usually thinks of a crystal as something hard and solid; a liquid, the opposite. Thus, the name “liquid crystal” seem to contradict. Most substances are either solid or liquid depending on the temperature (Makow, 1989). Liquid crystals flow like liquids, but exhibit some of the optical properties of crystals. Since liquid crystalline properties depend upon the stability of particular molecular arrangements, factors affecting molecular interaction are fundamentally important. Liquid crystal behavior is therefore highly sensitive to change in molecular structure which may, for example, alter the thermal stability of the liquid crystal, alter the type of liquid crystal formed or result in the formation of two liquid crystal types (Encyclopedia of Chemistry, 1972). In all its applications, liquid crystals at room temperature are needed. Few compounds meet this requirement, and low melting mixtures giving nematic or cholestiric states are generally used.

Liquid crystals are widely used. Their misotropic properties have been used for flaw detection in industries, for emission control in nuclear research, and even for pathological diagnosis in medicine. Thin films of cholesteric-liquid crystals can give color maps of the temperature of surfaces, and this application (surface thermography) is significant in medicine (in skin thermography and its applications in tumor detection, studies of cardiovascular diseases, etc.), in electronics (for temperature mapping of circuits) and in non-destructive testing of laminates (Encyclopedia of Chemistry, 1972). More widely known is their use in calculators and timepieces. Due to its wide range of applications, liquid crystal technology is the subject of much enthusiastic research. Through these inquiries, science will further magnify the importance of liquid crystal use in modern life.


1.Extraction of Coconut Fatty Acids

Two hundred sixty grams of potassium hydroxide (KOH) was dissolved in 250 ml_ of distilled water. One liter of coconut oil and ten mL of ninety-five percent ethanol (C1H5OH) were then added. The mixture was continuously stirred for about 15 minutes until the reaction was completed. The mixture was then cooled, and ten percent excess sulfuric acid (323.63g) was added to it to liberate the fatty acids. After allowing the mixture to stand for several hours, the liberated fatty acids (lauric acid) were isolated, filtered then collected.

2.Preparation of the Fatty Acids

The fatty acids were combined with the catalysts DCC (C13H22N2, N,N-diocyclohexylcarbo-diamide) and DMAP (C71110,N2, 4-dimethyl-aminopyridine) with a ratio of 0.05:0.05:0.05. 0.516 grams of DCC and 0.0306g DMAP were added for every 1g fatty acids. Dichloromethane was added until the mixture was completely dissolved. Preparation of Cholesterol 1.064 grams (0.05 mole) of cholesterol was placed in a 300 mL flask. This was dissolved in a 300mL flask with dichloromethane and stirred.

3.Synthesis of Liquid Crystals

The fatty acid-catalyst mixture was combined with the cholesterol in a round bottom flask. A magnetic stirrer was placed inside. The flask was covered with a tube combining CaC12. The mixture was mixed by the magnetic stirrer for 24 housr, or until the precipitates formed. The precipitates were filtered. The filtrate was collected and acidified by washing three times with 5% HCL and then water. For each washing the bottom layer (organic layer) was extracted. The extracts were combined, then evaporated in the rotary evaporator (rotavapor). The remaining product and the reactants cholesterol; fatty acids, and DCC, were spotted in the thin later chromatography test using the solvent composed of CH2C12, hexane, and ethyl acetate (2 m1:1 ml: 10 drops).

The product was dissolved in the aforementioned solvent and passed into a column containing silica gel. Thirty samples were collected consisting of 20 drops per flask. Each sample was spotted in TLC. The sample having spots of the possible product were combined and rotavaped. The remaining product was collected.


The product formed at the bottom later and the reactants, fatty acids appeared like white paste on the top layer. Cholesterol, fatty acids, the product, and DCC were spotted in the thin layer chromatography plates and showed that the product was different from the reactants.

The TLC spots of 18 samples obtained from column chromatography showed that they were possibly the cholesterol ester product. These samples were combined. A white product was collected when the solvent was evaporated in the rotary that the fatty acids an cholesterol had reacted because the peaks at the cholesterol had reached because the peaks at the 1350-1500 wave number were different from the peaks of fatty acids and cholesterol. The product was cholesterol ester; the cholesterol, an alcohol, was esterrified by the fatty acids.

The two melting points, 80°C and 110°C, of the product showed that it was in the mesophase, an important liquid crystalline property.

This confirmed that the product is a liquid crystal.


The fatty acids were extracted from coconut oil. The extract was mixed with DCC and DMAP and reacted with cholesterol to product cholesteryl ester. Subsequent tests showed that cholesteryl ester was produced and that the product had liquid crystalline properties.

It was ascertained from the results that liquids crystal compounds were successfully produced from the reaction of coconut oil fatty acids with choleterol. Therefore, coconut oil is, a commercially viable alternative to traditional sources of fatty acids for liquids crystal synthesis.


Because the reactions involved are high sensitive, it is recommended that future studies use alternative solvents in the process in particular for the fatty-acids extracts and the DCC-reactant mixture. Furthermore, stricter processes for chemical purification, especially for the dehydration of extracts must be employed to obtain results with lower margins of error.


Apostol, R, et. 1991, Chemical Synthesis of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals, Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Science High School.

Banzon J., et al. 1990. Coconut Food Quezon City Philippines:

Philippine Coconut Research and Development Foundation, Inc.


Raissa Francisco Rosario, Chu Neil Silye, Zarah Zoleta, Michael Cruz

ADVISER: Miss Juanita M. Cruz

Philippine Science High School Quezon City

Tuesday, 15 July 2014

Table of Contents Sample APA Style Format

Table of Contents
Approval Sheet
Table of Contents
Chapter I Problem and Its Setting
Statement of the Problem
Chapter II Review of Literature and Related Studies
Chapter III Methodology
Research Design     
Chapter IV Analysis, Presentation and Interpretation of Data
Characteristics of Respondents  
Table 1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents       
Chapter V Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Summary of Findings
Appendix A. Questionnaire       
Curriculum Vitae

Thesis Abstract Sample APA Style Format


This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of neurotic tendencies and their level among Bachelor of Arts Major in Psychology students of Notre Dame of Dadiangas University, Marist Avenue, General Santos City, during the second semester of the school year 2013-2014. The study utilized stratified random sampling technique by lottery with the sample size of 103 students age ranging from 16-24 years old. Also, interview guide and focus group discussion were developed to support and validate the data gathered from the survey questionnaire.
The results of the study revealed that most of the respondents are on their adolescent stage and among all moderator variables, their age is the significant indicator to the level of neurotic tendencies. The common neurotic tendencies among the students are anxiety, social phobia, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and hysteria which affect them emotionally that they seldom experienced.

Prevalence of neurotic tendency symptoms varies with regard to age, sex, civil status and year level of the students

Thesis Acknowledgment Sample APA Style Format

We convey our deepest appreciation and sincerest gratitude to the following people for their valuable assistance, guidance, moral support and encouragement for the completion of this research project.
            To Dr. Gigay M. Igiacio, for making this research possible, for the support, guidance, and advice throughout the research project, as well as his pain-staking effort in proof reading the drafts, is greatly appreciated. Indeed, without his supervision, it would not be able to put the topic together.
            To Dr. Lidor B. Misgo and Prof. Lolio U. Cericos, the panel members, whose positive criticisms gave valuable impact in the advancement of this research study.
            To Dr. Maria loe M. Cuung, Prof. Aurna D. Seon, RGC and Prof. Kyun Joy M. Elario, for sharing their expertise and guidance in the validation of this research study.
            To the Bachelor of Arts Major in Psychology students for sharing their time and effort for the completion of this study.
To our parents, Mr. and Mrs. Felox Callago, Mr. and Mrs. Joquin Vimjap, and Mr. and Mrs. Eberto Silasnio, for being there for the times of trouble and for the love. We thank them for their support emotionally, psychologically, and financially.

Lastly, we would like to give thanks to Almighty God for providing us everything to accomplish our tasks by His grace and blessings. Without Him everything would be impossible.

Wednesday, 29 May 2013

Philippines Sea Farming of Bangus, Sugpo and Eucheuma

Sea Farming
In the early history of mankind, people were food gatherers and hunters. Then, they learned how to-grow plants and raise animals. They became farmers. Farming activities enabled them to have a more stable food supply. They did not only farm on land but they also learned to farm the seas. Farming on land is known as agriculture. Farming of lakes and seas is called aquaculture.
For many years, Filipinos have been involved in aquaculture farming. Among the aquatic-organisms being raised in water farms are bangus (milkfish), sugpo (tiger shrimps) and seaweeds particularly Eucheuma.

Bangus Culture
Raising bangus has traditionally been done in fishponds. The water in these fishponds is brackish. It means the water is salty, but the amount of salt is less than that in seawater. Brackish water results when seawater mixes with freshwater from rivers and lakes.
In nature, the adult female bangus or sabalo lays eggs in the open seas. Then the male deposits sperms in the water, which fertilize the eggs. After hatching, the young fry find their way into the shallow waters. These very young bangus (bangus fry) are caught by nets near the shore.

Bangus fry are then transferred to the fishponds, where they grow to be fingerlings and later into market-size bangus. Here, they are given the proper conditions for growth. For example, bangus feeds on plankton. Certain methods are used to make planktons abundant in the fishpond. Also, since other fish such as tilapia eat bangus fry, these are kept out of the pond, which then becomes exclusive to bangus. In addition, insect pests which destroy the fingerlings are eliminated by using some insecticide. After a few months under these favorable conditions in the fishpond, the bangus are of the right size for the market.

There was a time when the sabalo could not lay eggs in captivity. It has been reported that a procedure was developed at the Southeast Asia Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) based in Iloilo, to make the breeding of milkfish in artificial ponds possible. However, most of the bangus fry raised in fishponds are still gathered from the sea.

In sugpo culture, as in the raising of bangus, the fry of tiger shrimps are made to grow in brackish water in fishponds. The fry are fed well. They do not only feed on plankton but also on ready-made or formulated feeds and other food, such as chopped tiny shrimps and shells.
Sugpo culture is more expensive than raising bangus. However, the profits are bigger, because it is in demand not only locally but as an export product.
Like bangus, a technique for artificial breeding of sugpo has been developed.

Eucheuma farming
Eucheuma is an alga (Figure 12.24). It grows naturally in reef flats but the biggest source is the wide shallow areas of the Sulu archipelago

The seaweed is a source of carrageenin. Carrageenin is an organic substance used in making emulsions and suspensions. For example, it is a component in ice creams, mayonnaise, toothpaste and creams. It acts as a stabilizing substance that prevents certain ingredients, such as the oils, from separating from the mixture. Carrageenin is in high demand in industry. It is a dollar earner for our country.

With the decrease in supply due to overharvesting, people started to set up Eucheuma farms. Thousands of families in Sulu and Tawi-tawi are small Eucheuma farmers. Also a boost to the farmers is the building of a factory in Mandaue and Cebu for preparing carrageenin. In spite of these developments, many problems face the farmers, including an unstable price for their produce. Some have even abandoned their farms and have gone back to fishing. Help from the government is much needed to save the industry.
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